Dunia Commercial Diver



Kali ni aku nak cerita sikit tentang Platform,izinkan aku tulis dalam bahasa Inggeris (sebenarnya copy & Paste je)nak translate ke BM malas pulak rasanya….idea dry….

Offshore platforms are used for exploration of Oil and Gas from under Seabed and processing.The First Offshore platform was installed in 1947 off the coast of Louisiana in 6M depth of water. Today there are over 7,000 Offshore platforms around the world in water depths up to 1,850M

platform 1


Platform size depends on facilities to be installed on top side eg. Oil rig, living quarters, Helipad etc.
Classification of water depths:
< 350 M- Shallow water
< 1500 M - Deep water
> 1500 M- Ultra deep water
US Mineral Management Service (MMS) classifies water depths greater than 1,300 ft as deepwater, and greater than 5,000 ft as ultra-deepwater.

platform 2


Offshore platforms can broadly categorized in two types
Fixed structures that extend to the Seabed.
- Steel Jacket
- Concrete gravity Structure
- Compliant Tower

platform 3


Structures that float near the water surface- Recent development
- Tension Leg platforms
- Semi Submersible
- Spar
- Ship shaped vessel (FPSO)

platform 4


TYPE OF PLATFORMS (FIXED)
JACKETED PLATFORM (FIXED)
- Space framed structure with tubular members supported on piled foundations.
- Used for moderate water depths up to 400 M.
- Jackets provides protective layer around the pipes.
- Typical offshore structure will have a deck structure containing a Main Deck, a Cellar Deck, and a Helideck.
– The deck structure is supported by deck legs connected to the top of the piles. The piles extend from above the Mean Low Water through the seabed and into the soil.
– Underwater, the piles are contained inside the legs of a “jacket” structure which serves as bracing for the piles against lateral loads.
– The jacket also serves as a template for the initial driving of the piles. (The piles are driven through the inside of the legs of the jacket structure).
– Natural period (usually 2.5 second) is kept below wave period (14 to 20 seconds) to avoid amplification of wave loads.
– 95% of offshore platforms around the world are Jacket supported.

platform 5


COMPLIANT TOWER(FIXED)
– Narrow, flexible framed structures supported by piled foundations.
– Has no oil storage capacity. Production is through tensioned rigid risers and export by flexible or catenary steel pipe.
– Undergo large lateral deflections (up to 10 ft) under wave loading. Used for moderate water depths up to 600 M.
– Natural period (usually 30 second) is kept above wave period (14 to 20 seconds) to avoid amplification of wave loads.

platform 6


TYPE OF PLATFORMS (FIXED)
CONCRETE GRAVITY STRUCTURES:
– Fixed-bottom structures made from concrete
– Heavy and remain in place on the seabed without the need for piles
– Used for moderate water depths up to 300 M.
– Part construction is made in a dry dock adjacent to the sea. The structure is built from bottom up, like onshore structure.
– At a certain point , dock is flooded and the partially built structure floats. It is towed to deeper sheltered water where remaining construction is completed.
– After towing to field, base is filled with water to sink it on the seabed.
– Advantage- Less maintenance

platform 7


To be Continue....more information about platform coming up next entry....

9 comments:

Spy Leman,
Best entry.. dapat juga ilmu mcmne platform ni boleh berdiri teguh di atas laut yg bergelombang tu..

t.kasih...kerana masih sudi bertandang dan beri komen....

Spy Leman,
Sama-sama.. jgnlah berhenti menulis selagi terdaya.. :)

Bro,
Interesting facts, tak kiralah cut n paste je pun, janji mesej itu sampai. Btw, gambar2 yg cun tu u cut paste gak ke? if not, i suggest, bila u naik darat, silalah berkecimpung dlm dunia fotografi pulak :)

Love,
Jawa Europe

gambar tu i berusaha dapatkan sebaik mgkn supaya pelayan2 blog dapat gambaran sejelas mungkin.tapi itu sajalah yg berhasil didapatkan......sori ye...atas sebarang kesulitan untuk melihat dgn jelas seribu kemaafan dipohon....
by the way...jawa europe lama menyepi pegi mana? taulah...dah nak...ehem ehem....

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

melayu berilmu jarang dpt org melayunseperti ini..bagus2..sy suke sy suke.

melayu bijak..jrg melayu mcm ni...

Anonymous & En Man..
Tinggi sgt pujian tu..
ianya tak layak untuk hamba..
Segala Pujian hamba kembalikan kepada Allah dgn ucapan Alhamdulillah...iaitu Segala Puji Bagi Allah.

masih ramai org melayu lain yang lebih bijak,cerdik,hebat dan cemerlang lagi...
Hamba hanya seorang Blogger kampung sahaja.

bagaimanapun hamba ucapkan terima kasih kerana sudi layan blog Cap Ayam hamba...

Time


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Aku..

(Sesungguhnya masa depan kita atau org lain tidak kita ketahui melainkan semuanya adalah didalam pengetahuan ALLAH SWT jua. ) Ini adalah sebuah kisah atau cerita-cerita yang membosankan mengenai kehidupanku sebagai seorang penyelam komersial dalam industri Minyak & Gas.Kepada yang pertama kali masuk blog ni eloklah baca dari entri pertama baru bole faham blog ini sbnrnya...sama mcm kita tgk movie kalau tiba2 je dah kat tgh2 mesti tak faham. kemudian kita terus andaikan yang citer tu tak best.....Anggaplah Tuan/Puan sedang membaca sebuah novel realiti.walau bagaimanapun aku ucapkan terima kasih kerana Tuan/Puan sudi melayan blog `Cap Ayam' aku ni.Hidup sebagai pelaut seperti aku bersesuaian benar dengan ayat dari surah dibawah.

Dialah yang menundukan lautan (sehingga boleh dilayari dipermukaannya atau diselami didasarnya) Supaya kamu dapat makan daripadanya daging yang lembut dan dapat pula mengeluarkan daripadanya perhiasan untuk kamu memakainya.Engkau melihat pula kapal-kapal belayar padanya dan supaya kamu dapat mencari rezeki daripada limpah kurnianya mudah-mudahan kamu bersyukur.

AL NAHL ayat 14.

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